Quick head’s up: If you don’t know it already, capnography is one of the most powerful tools in airway management. In the process of collating some pre-learning material for a workshop, I realised that I was gathering quite a few nice resources on capnography. To save you the time, I’ve linked them together on a new Capnography page here on OpenAirway. There are online tutorials, an interactive quiz, reference waveforms, and dynamic videos to be found. Please feel free to suggest further resources in the links!
If you work in an environment without constant access to staff to clean and process your video laryngoscopes, you need to know how to do it yourself. This quick video demonstrates pragmatic cleaning of the C-MAC VL (original and latest version) for low-risk patients. Where there is high infection risk, heavy soiling or blood on the blades, high level disinfection may be indicated.
Some updates to the site to improve your access and experience! The various courses which are on offer in conjunction with the UCT Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine have been added to a new ‘Courses & Lectures‘ page here on OpenAirway, which also now includes links to the content and resources available from many of our previous workshops, courses and congress meetings, as well as a collection of the lectures that are available online. These are being added to steadily, but if you can’t find something, use the search function on the tool bar! The menu has also been update to make the various items easier to find.
There are many ways to adequately topicalise an airway, which depend on personal and institutional experience, and the available drugs in different parts of the world. This is a step-by-step set of instructions on how to make the “GSH Mix” in use at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Note that we don’t have access to certain ingredients which are commonly available elsewhere (such as viscous lignocaine or Moffett’s solution).
End product: 4 % (or 5%) lignocaine with 20 mcg/ml adrenaline.
- Three 10 ml syringes
- Needles to draw up drugs
- Syringe labels and marker pen
- 5 ml 10% lignocaine (‘Remicard 10% in SA)
- 1 mg/1 ml adrenaline (1:1000)
- Two 10 ml normal saline ampoules to dilute
- Nebuliser mask
Draw the adrenaline (1 mg/1 ml) into the adrenaline syringe, and dilute with saline to 10 ml (100 mcg/ml, or 1:10 000 solution):
Transfer 2 ml (200 mcg) of the dilute adrenaline into the mix syringe: Add 4 ml of the 10 % lignocaine solution to the mix syringe (use all 5 ml if you want to make a 5 % solution rather than the usual 4 %): Add saline to the mix syringe to a total volume of 10 ml. You now have 4 % (or 5 %) lignocaine with 20 mcg/ml adrenaline: Put 5 ml of the mix into the nebuliser mask, ready to commence topicalisation by neb: Split the remaining 5 ml mixture into two 10 ml syringes (using your third syringe) to be used for spray-as-you-go through the scope if needed:
Put the rest of the adrenaline solution somewhere safe (or discard it), and draw back the plungers on the mix syringes all the way. This introduces air which then blows the local mix through the scope when you do spray-as-you-go. Don’t forget to give the neb plenty of time to work (15-20 minutes, until complete). Don’t forget to use adjuvant strategies to improve your topicalisation, such as gargling, atomised spray, or topical gel/paste, and enter your cases into a registry such as TheAirwayApp so that we can build worldwide experience with different techniques!
Some photos of the action at the Nairobi Surgical Skills Centre this week. Many thanks to the local faculty from the University of Nairobi and other institutions, the companies that supported use of the facilities and equipment, and the enthusiastic delegates!
Resources and notes from the course are available on the course page here.
All hosted on the permanent page here!
Herewith a collaborative effort from the airway Twitterati to establish a list of common airway abbreviations:
- AFOI – Awake fibre-optic (or flexible optic) intubation
- ApOX – Apnoeic Oxygenation
- BB – Bronchial blocker
- BVM – Bag/Valve/Mask device (see BVMR)
- BVMR – Bag/Valve/Mask/Reservoir device (see BVM)
- CICO – Can’t intubate, can’t oxygenate (see CICV)
- CICV – Can’t intubate, can’t ventilation (CICO now in use)
- CL – Cormack-Lehane grade
- DL – Direct laryngoscopy
- DLT – Double-lumen endobronchial tube
- DSI – Delayed sequence induction
- ESA – Emegency Surgical Airway (see FONA)
- ETI – Endotracheal intubation
- ETT – Endotracheal tube
- EtCO2 – End-tital carbon dioxide
- EXIT – EX-utero Intrapartum Treatment
- FB – Foreign body
- FETO – Fetal Endoscopic Tracheal Occlusion (or Fetoscopic EndoTracheal Occlusion)
- FiO2 – Fraction of inspired oxygen
- FOI – Fibre-optic intubation
- FONA – Front-of-neck access (see ESA)
- LA – Local anaesthetic
- LMA – Laryngeal Mask Airway (trade name, see SGA etc)
- MAD – Mucosal Atomisation Device
- MP – Mallampati grade
- NPA – Nasopharyngeal airway
- NODESAT – Nasal Oxygenation During Efforts at Secuing A Tube
- OPA – Oropharyngeal airway
- PLA – Perilayngeal airway
- RSI – Rapid sequence induction
- SAD – Supraglottic airway device (see SGA, EGA, XGA)
- SGA – Supraglottic airway (see SAD, EGA, XGA)
- THRIVE – Transnasal, Humidified, Rapid-Insufflatory Ventilatory Exchange
- VL – Video layngoscopy
- XGA – Extraglottic airway (see EGA, SAD, SGA)
Contributions/comments? DM @openaiwayorg or @rosshofmeyr
Thanks to @AirwayMxAcademy for initiating the idea!
Clinical video demonstrating a collection of techniques to facilitate elective intubation for a patient with an unstable cervical spinal injury in caliper traction. Note the sideways introduction of the VL blade due to limited space for the VL handle, optimisation of the view (‘Rule of 3’), use of a coude-tipped bougie (introducer), and the 3-part technique to advance the endotracheal tube when it catches on the arytenoid cartilage (pull tube back to disengage, rotate 90 degrees counterclockwise, advance tube).
We’re hosting this in Cape Town in April. It’s going to be the first workshop if it’s kind on the continent, and perhaps even in the world: a combined cadaver and manikin simulation workshop, featuring senior anaesthesia and ENT trainees and specialists working together to solve challenging airway problems in real time. This will be reinforced by expert didactic input from local leaders in the field. Places are very limited, but expect feedback and images/video here on OpenAirway.